Wednesday, August 26, 2020

Protestant Reformation Free Essays

Before his demise at the Second Battle of Kappel (Capel) on October 1, 1531, at 47 years old, Zwingli had achieved much in the method of building up the philosophy of the developing Protestant confidence. While Zwingli and Luther may have concurred on numerous purposes of the confidence one region of significant division was over the nearness of Christ’s body in the Communion. Luther held to the conviction that when one participated in the bread and wine that, while the bread and wine didn't change into the body and blood of Christ, the body and blood were available with them to support the adherent. We will compose a custom exposition test on Protestant Reformation or then again any comparative subject just for you Request Now Zwingli, then again solidly accepted that that bread and the wine and the activities going with them in the Communion were carefully representative of a progressively profound reality. 6 According to Lindsay, the Fourth proposal at the Bern Disputation of 1 528 states that, † it can't be demonstrated from the Scripture that the Body and Blood of Christ are significantly and mortally got in the Eucharist. 7 With this, Zwingli would concur. While Zwingli was not ready to go separate ways completely with the Catholic Church concerning newborn child submersion he was an impassioned promoter of permitting the ministry to wed. In a gathering where Zwingli had formed sixty-seven theories to be introduced and discussed he stated, † I am aware of no more prominent nor graver embarrassment than that which denies legitimate union with clerics, but then allows them on installment of cash to have courtesans and whores. Fie for disgrace! â€Å"8 There were numerous territory of contradiction between the Reformers and the built up Church, for example, who should administer and ake laws overseeing botn church and state. Zwingli maintained the privilege ot the state to make laws and oversee religion yet in addition permitted the individuals to ascend and defy the decision parties if vital. This was in extraordinary differentiation to the stand taken by the Anabaptist in later years. In spite of the fact that changes were delayed in coming and by and large were hard won, significant changes were occurring concerning how the congregation was to be administered, who was to get the cup and bread, regardless of whether clerics were permitted to wed, just as numerous other religious issues. One gathering that came to fruition as a procedure of Zwingli’s lessons, however they did ot feel that Zwingli had conveyed sacred text or the change of the congregation to its obvious end result, was the Anabaptists. In spite of the fact that regularly alluded to as â€Å"rebaptizers† because of their reluctance to acknowledge newborn child submersion or immersions performed by the Catholic Church, they would â€Å"re-baptize† those people. The Anabaptists themselves didn't accept they were re-submersing individuals since they had not been scripturally purified through water in any case. 9 Wanting to reestablish the congregation to what they trusted it was in the primary century, followers were more precisely â€Å"restorationists† than reformationists. Called Radical Reformers they were viewed as unorthodox and rebellious by the Catholic Church just as other Protestant gatherings for their dismissal of the set up holy places. Accepting that every single other confidence had debased the Word of God and the practices built up in Scripture Anabaptists parted from association with different adherents. One of the principle powers of the Anabaptist development was Thomas Muntzer. He composed a few blistering assaults against Luther, in one tract calling Luther, † the unspiritual delicate living tissue in Wittenberg, whose theft and twisting of Scripture has so heinously contaminated our pitiable Christian Church. In he same tract he called Luther â€Å"Father Pussyfoot,† â€Å"Dr. Liar† and â€Å"the Pope of Wittenberg. â€Å"11 in this manner strengthening the discontent and detachment between the Anabaptists and different gatherings of Protestants. Change was happening over numerous pieces of Europe. Men like Luther, Calvin, and Zwingli were endeavoring to right what they accepted were the wrongs and outrages being constrained on the individuals by a degenerate Church and country. The Catholic Church and the Emperors or lords for the duration of the hour of the Reformation kept on opposing the instructing of improved religious philosophy, even to the point of executing the individuals who might not retract their â€Å"unacceptableâ₠¬  sees. Every so often gatherings (Diets) were brought trying to determine a large number of the issues between the built up chapel, the ruler , and the reformers. In light of Luther’s posting of his 95 theories, in which he publically tested and denounce a considerable lot of the acts of the Catholic Church, on the entryway of Wittenberg church, an ecclesiastical bull was given banishing Luther from the Catholic Church. Luther publically consumed the ecclesiastical bull on a blaze, basically resisting the authority of the Pope himself. An eating regimen was called by Emperor Charles V. Held, April 16-May 25, 1521 in Worms, Germany it was proposed to decide whether Luther was an apostate. Luther was under the feeling that it was a meeting to examine or discuss his convictions, amazingly he was introduced a portion of his works and order to abjure. In Luther’s reaction that he couldn't except if he was persuaded that he wasn't right. One consequence of this Diet was the giving of the Edict of Worms, which censured Luther as a, â€Å"heretic and an outlaw,† and directed that he be captured and his books consumed. 2 While Luther battled in the tight tor reality in Germany, Zwingli was having more achievement in Zurich. In the first of four gatherings, known as the Zurich Disputation in 529, Zwingli introduced his 67 theories which denounced a significant number of impediments and practices of the church. He accepted that the Bible was its own position and the Church didn't give it force and truth. Jesus was the unrivaled method to get to God the Father, t he Pope didn't have extreme control over every single otherworldly issue, and works can't accomplish merit, for salvation, through their benevolent acts. 3 His compositions were generally welcomed and the Council would place into rehearses a portion of his proposals. Other striking occasions, however there are many, would be the Augsburg Confession, and The St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre on August 24, 1572. The first was composed by Melanchthon, which spread out the major convictions of confidence for the reformers. Introduced at the Diet of Augsburg in 1530 it was dismissed by the Catholic ruler however embraced by the Lutheran church as their essential record of confidence. 14 St. Bartholomew’s slaughter was an endeavor by Catherine de’ Medici to conceal a death of Admiral Coligny by Catherine and the Duke of Guise. Dreadful that an examination would uncover her part in the arrangement and that the Huguenots expanding brutality, she requested a slaughter of the Huguenots assembled in Paris at that point. 15 Before the contention was more than a huge number of Huguenots had been killed or kicked the bucket from starvation. As has just been referenced, a portion of the more notable compositions of the reconstruction incorporate the sixty-seven proposals by Zwingli. the web/ Step by step instructions to refer to Protestant Reformation, Papers

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Luis Torres Essays - Music, Culture, African-American Culture, Fads

Luis Torres Dr. Beam Gehani Globalization and Outsourcing of U.S Industry 04/23/2017 Globalization and Outsourcing of Music in U.S Globalization of business sectors additionally implies globalization of culture and Americanization. A model can be seen in the music business. Since the formation of hip-jump in the 1980's, rap music has reached out to different societies around the world. From South Africa to Japan, hip bounce has established an all inclusive connection. Many rap craftsmen from the United States admit that a generous measure of their music is really bought in different nations. To such an extent that, the abroad deals as often as possible outperform the measure of music purchased locally. This invigorates World Tours, visiting places like Germany, Puerto Rico, and Australia. Around the globe, different nationalities are likewise rapping to beats that mirror their way of life. Punjabi MC is a DJ out of London of Indian drop who makes music with an alternate turn. His music frequently envelops instruments and sounds that are suggestive of India and Bollywood and has likewise teamed up with famous American rappers, for example, Jay Z. Not exclusively do American entertainers attempt to make it in the music business, splendid men in Nigeria, Cuba, and Brazil have done as such too. American hip jump music flowed the social halls of the planet and has been spellbound and reexamined far and wide, (Nawotka, 2004). Some case that hip jump has gotten common on a worldwide scale on the grounds that numerous individuals identify with the music. African-americans in New York molded rap to what it is today, utilizing it as an approach to communicate their battles at that point. Frequently rappers express their afflictions, difficulties, and issues with destitution. Rappers additionally expel their emotions about debasement, the legislature, and racial disparity. As a socially mistreated individuals, different social orders relate to these sentiments of persecution communicated by African Americans. Hip jump is something Americans take for grantednot so somewhere else, particularly in the creating scene, where it has come to speak to the strengthening of the disappointment of the American dream, (Nawotka, 2004). Therefore, globalization and Americanization has affected different nations over the world. Globalizing markets implies that various societies and social orders will be abused and disappointe d. Rappers in Nigeria likewise rap about their battles with destitution. Through American hip jump, craftsman around the globe use music as an approach to communicate, relating with the need for freedom and social balance. Americanization is an impact that is by and by scattering all through the created world. It is particularly seen in music where most industrialized nations are moved and influenced by the hip bounce peculiarity. In spite of the fact that rap was made in America by Americans, numerous individuals around the world have gotten on this craftsmanship and changed the music to mirror their way of life, or rap to an American beat in their local language.

Tuesday, August 11, 2020

Lets talk about scienceand chocolate

Let’s talk about scienceand chocolate In Ancient Greece, the word “symposium” referred to a gathering of rich men reclining on comfy couches while drinking and battling wits. The symposium that I attended on Friday was quite a different assembly. Held at the beautiful new conference center at Harvard Medical School, the New England Science Symposium featured oral presentations and posters from students of a wide range of ages and backgrounds. The event officially began at 8 AM, and the morning was spent listening to medical and graduate students present their research. At 11 AM, the keynote presentation was given by Dr. Roderic Ivan Pettigrew, the director of the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, who received his PhD in Nuclear Engineering from MIT in 1977. He gave an inspiring presentation that highlighted some incredible biomedical research, including a glucose-sensing contact lens that has a little patch of color that changes in response to glucose levels. I was famished by the end of th e talk, but luckily it was lunch time! One chicken sandwich, cookie, and bag of chips later, I found myself back in the auditorium listening to the final round of presentations. Then, it was my turn! The poster session was from 2:00-3:40 PM, when I had the chance to present my summer research conducted at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to several judges and Harvard Medical School faculty. It’s always neat to explain your work to people who know so much more about it than you do… Following the poster session was a panel about navigating our scientific careers. Anyways, I would encourage you all to take any opportunity that you can to present any research that you have done; not only do you get free goodies like food and a tote bag, but you meet a lot of inspiring people and improve your scientific communication skills. Saturday night was my sorority’s annual Fondue Dessert extravaganza! Given that I have been on the planning committee for the past two years, this event is near and dear to my heart [click here for last years entry]. We invited faculty, administrators, and staff to meet and chat with the sisters of Alpha Chi Omega (abbreviated as “AXO”) from 8 to 9 pm; from 9 to 11 pm, we opened the house to the whole MIT community. More than forty faculty members and 350 students contributed to the consumption of 75 pounds of chocolate in 3 hours. There is nothing like talking to your professors while surrounded by burbling chocolate fountains and every possible baked good dipped in chocolate. We were honored to have in attendance President Susan Hockfield, her husband, Dr. Tom Byrne, and her daughter, as well as the Dean of Undergraduate Education, Daniel Hastings, and his wife. Of course, no AXO fondue event is complete without Matt’s presence. As always, he was swarmed by admirers (photographic evidence included below, as well as here.) I get so overwhelmed with joy when such influential members of the MIT community take time out of their busy schedules to hang out with students on a Saturday night! I think it says volumes about their commitment to student life, given the range of conversations from suggestions of creating more studio space for student artists to advice for candidates running for student council president. Thanks to everyone who came and made the night a huge success. To those of you who have not yet stepped foot on campus, I hope you can make it next year!

Saturday, May 23, 2020

The Failed State of Franklin

Founded in 1784 with the intent of becoming the fourteenth state of the new United States, the State of Franklin was located in what is now Eastern Tennessee. The story of Franklin — and how it failed — highlights how the victorious end of the American Revolution in 1783 actually left the new Union of states in a fragile condition. How Franklin Came to Be The costs of fighting the Revolutionary War left the Continental Congress facing a staggering debt. In April 1784, the legislature of North Carolina voted to give Congress some 29 million acres of land — about twice the size of Rhode Island — located between the Appalachian Mountains and the Mississippi River to help pay its share of the war debt.   However, North Carolina’s â€Å"gift† of the land came with a major catch. The cession document gave the federal government two years to accept complete responsibility for the area. This meant that during the two-year delay, the western frontier settlements of North Carolina would be virtually alone in protecting themselves from the Cherokee Indians, many of whom remained at war with the new nation. Needless to say, this did not sit well with the residents of the ceded region who feared that the cash-starved and war-weary Congress might even sell the territory to France or Spain. Rather than risk this outcome, North Carolina took the land back and began to organize it as four counties within the state. After the war, the frontier settlements west of the Appalachian Mountains and east of the Mississippi had not automatically become part of the United States. As historian Jason Farr wrote in the Tennessee Historical Quarterly, â€Å"It was never assumed.† Instead, Congress gave the communities three options: become parts of existing states, form new states of the union, or become their own sovereign nations. Rather than choosing to become a part of North Carolina, the residents of the four ceded counties voted to form a new, fourteenth state, which would be  called Franklin. Historians suggest that to some extent, they may have agreed with George Washington, who suggested that they had become â€Å"a distinct people† with cultural and political differences from those in the Atlantic states who had fought for American independence. In December 1784, Franklin officially declared itself to be an independent state, with Revolutionary War veteran John Sevier reluctantly serving as its first governor. However, as historian George W. Troxler notes in the Encyclopedia of North Carolina, Franklin’s organizers did not know at the time that North Carolina had decided to take it back. â€Å"The December 1784 constitution of Franklin did not formally define its boundaries,† Troxler wrote. â€Å"By implication, jurisdiction was assumed over all of the ceded territory, and area approximating the future state of Tennessee.† The relationship between the new Union, its 13 Atlantic Seaboard states, and the western frontier territories had gotten off to a rocky start, to say the least. â€Å"There was little concern for western political and economic interests during the Confederation era, especially among the northeastern elite,† Farr writes. â€Å"Some even assumed that frontier communities would remain outside the union.† Indeed, Franklin’s declaration of statehood in 1784 stirred fears among the Founding Fathers that they might not be able to keep the new nation together.   The Rise of Franklin A delegation from Franklin officially submitted its petition for statehood to Congress on May 16, 1785. Unlike the statehood approval process established by the U.S. Constitution, the Articles of Confederation in effect at the time required that new petitions for statehood be approved by the legislatures of two-thirds of the existing states. While seven states eventually voted to admit the territory as what would have been the 14th federal state, the vote fell short short of the required two-thirds majority. Going It Alone With its petition for statehood defeated and still unable to agree with North Carolina over several issues including taxation and protection, Franklin began operating as unrecognized, independent republic. In December 1785, Franklin’s de-facto legislature adopted its own constitution, known as the Holston Constitution, which closely tracked that of North Carolina.    Still unchecked — or perhaps unnoticed due to its isolated location — by the federal government, Franklin created courts, annexed new counties, assessed taxes, and negotiated several treaties with area Indian tribes. While its economy was based mainly on bartering, Franklin accepted all federal and foreign currencies. Due to the lack of its own currency or economic infrastructure and the fact that its legislature had granted all of its citizens a two-year reprieve on paying taxes, Franklin’s ability to develop and provide government services was limited. The Beginning of the End The ties that  held Franklin’s unofficial statehood together  began to unravel in  1787. In late 1786, North Carolina offered to waive all back taxes owed to it by Franklin’s citizens if the â€Å"state† agreed to reunite with its government. While Franklin’s voters rejected the offer in early 1787, several influential citizens who felt disenchanted by the lack of government services or military protection in Franklin supported it the offer. Ultimately, the offer was rejected. North Carolina subsequently sent troops led by Col. John Tipton into the disputed territory and began to re-establish its own government. For several very contentious and confusing months, the governments of Franklin and North Carolina competed side-by-side.   The Battle of Franklin Despite the objections of North Carolina, the â€Å"Franklinites† continued to expand to the west by forcibly seizing land from the Native American populations. Led by the Chickamauga and Chickasaw tribes, the Native Americans fought back, conducting their own raids on Franklin’s settlements. As part of the larger Chickamauga Cherokee Wars, the bloody back-and-forth raids continued into 1788. In September 1787, the Franklin legislature met — for what would be the last time. By December 1787, the loyalties of Franklin’s war-weary and debt-laden citizens to its unrecognized government was eroding, with many openly supporting alignment with North Carolina. In early February 1788, North Carolina ordered Washington County Sheriff Jonathan Pugh to seize and sell at auction any property owned by Franklin’s Governor John Sevier in order to repay taxes he owed to North Carolina. Among the â€Å"property† seized by Sheriff Pugh were several slaves, who he took to Col. Tipton’s home and secured in his underground kitchen. On the morning of February 27, 1788, Governor Sevier along with about 100 of his militiamen showed up at Tipton’s house, demanding his slaves. Then, on the snowy morning of February 29, North Carolina Colonel George Maxwell arrived with 100 of his own better-trained and armed regular troops to repel Sevier’s militia. After less than 10 minutes of skirmishing, the so-called â€Å"Battle of Franklin† ended with Sevier and his force withdrawing. According to accounts of the incident, several men on both sides were wounded or captured, and three were killed. The Final Fall of Franklin The final nail in Franklin’s coffin was driven in March 1788 when the Chickamauga, Chickasaw, and several other tribes joined in coordinated attacks on frontier settlements in Franklin. Desperate to raise a viable army, Governor Sevier arranged for a loan from the government of Spain. However, the agreement required Franklin to be placed under Spanish rule. To North Carolina, that was the final deal-breaker. Strongly opposed to allowing a foreign government to control what it considered to be part of its state, North Carolina officials arrested Governor Sevier in August 1788. While his supporters quickly freed him from the poorly protected local jail, Sevier soon turned himself in. Franklin met its final end in February 1789, when Sevier and his few remaining loyalists signed oaths of allegiance to North Carolina. By the end of 1789, all of the lands that had been part of the â€Å"Lost State† rejoined North Carolina. The Legacy of Franklin While Franklin’s existence as an independent state lasted less than five years, its failed rebellion contributed to the framers decision to include a clause in the U.S. Constitution regarding the formation of new states. The â€Å"New States† clause in Article IV, Section 3, stipulates that while new states â€Å"may be admitted by the Congress into this Union,† it further stipulates that no new states â€Å"may be formed â€Å"within the jurisdiction of any other State† or parts of states unless approved by votes of the state legislatures and the U.S. Congress. Historical Events Fast Facts April 1784: North Carolina cedes parts of its western frontier to the federal government as repayment of its Revolutionary War debt.August 1784: Franklin proclaims itself as the 14th independent state and secedes from North Carolina.May 16, 1785: Petition for Franklin statehood sent to U.S. Congress.December 1785: Franklin adopts its own constitution, similar to that of North Carolina.Spring 1787: Franklin rejects an offer by North Carolina to rejoin its control in return for forgiving the debts of its residents.Summer 1787: North Carolina sends troops to Franklin to re-establish its government.February 1788: North Carolina seizes slaves owned by Franklin Governor Sevier.February 27, 1788: Governor Sevier and his militia attempt to recover his slaves using force but are repelled by North Carolina troops.August 1788: North Carolina officials arrest Governor Sevier.February 1789: Governor Sevier and his followers sign oaths of allegiance to North Carolina.By December 1789: All areas of the â€Å"Lost State† of Franklin had re-joined North Carolina.

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

High School Dropouts At Risk Students - 1419 Words

Introduction High school dropouts are usually defined as students who leave school before obtaining a diploma but in some cases, are also labeled as a drop out if they do not complete the high school curriculum within four years after entering ninth grade (Hampden-Thompson, Kienzl, Daniel, Kinukawa, 2007). Students who are considered to be at risk are more vulnerable to dropping out of school than others. These at risk students usually exhibit behavioral, attitudinal, or academic problems (Lemon and Watson, 2011). However, other factors do contribute to dropping out which include family issues, health issues, mobility, and cultural issues. According to Laqana (2004), high school dropouts present serious implications for society such as reduced earnings, higher unemployment, increased crime rates, increased teen pregnancy, and increased alcohol and drug abuse. Currently, there are approximately 1.3 million annual high school dropouts who might lose $355 billion of income over the ir lifetimes (Bornsheuer, Polonyi, Andrews, Fore, Onwuegbuzie, 2011). It is also noted that the prison population in some states is comprised of fifty to ninety percent of high school dropouts. Whannel Allen (2011), identified a number of aspects of the school experience which are relevant to school attrition. Usually it is a process that begins for many in their early years of school and several factors contribute to the final decision to stop attending classes. These factors can beShow MoreRelatedFactors Contributing to the High School Drop Out Rate Essay1569 Words   |  7 Pagesthe amount students that were a part of my class. I clearly remember the number being 729.All of a sudden by my sophomore and junior year the number decreased more and more. Before I knew it, I was sitting at graduation practice where my principle announced how many students would be graduating. The number was around 520 and I was extremely shocked. Questions seemed to roam around my head like why d id we go from 729 student’s on the first day to 520 actually graduating from high school that year?Read MoreSpeech On Let s Talk Success1731 Words   |  7 Pagesstatistics on the number of students who drop out from public K-12 education. Despite the plethora of accurate statistics on the number of students leaving school there are various reasons attributed to why less than $200,000 of federal money has been devoted to researching the causes. This leads to the question that many educators like myself have: how do we stop students from dropping out? A report from U.S. today in 2012, found that nearly 87% of high school dropouts listed the second main reasonRead MoreSocial Support For Adolescents At Risk Of School Failure943 Words   |  4 PagesAdolescents at Risk of School Failure. Social Work, Vol. 43, No. 4, pp. 309-323. Oxford University Press. Article Stable URL: The author of this article emphazises the importance of encouraging students who are at risk of dropping out from school and the significance that makes social support on desirable school outcomes. In it also discussed the distinction between the support and interaction of the school and student and it concludedRead More Raising the Dropout Age Essay1421 Words   |  6 PagesChildren are told from a young age that it is mandatory for them to graduate from high school, but it’s not until they are on the verge of dropping out that they hear the importance for staying in school. It is also when they hear how high school students who dropouts learn the incredible price to pay in the future when they give up on an education. Thinking with a teenage state of mind and trying to take the easy way out they go straight for a GED, which is told to be an equivalent earning of aRead MoreDropout From High School And The Consequences Of Their Actions Essay1203 Words   |  5 Pagesthat are associated with students that dropout from high school and the consequences of their actions. We will look at the percentages of adults that have dropped out and what states have the highest amount. We will also look at how dropping out from high school affects the earning potential of adults that did not finish high school. We will also look what percentage is highest among who fail to finish high school among ethnic groups. In high schools across America the dropout rate has sky rocketedRead MoreSchool Drop Outs/Labeling Theory Social Learning Theory1499 Words   |  6 PagesSchool Dropouts Florida AM University Abstract Over the years dropout rates have decreased but still target African Americans and Hispanics mostly in our society today. Nowadays they are labeled to fail based on race, background, pregnancy, and/or peers. Since the 1970s, there has been a growing effort to improve high school graduation rates. In 1983, the National Commission on Excellence in Education sounded the alarm because U.S. educational standards had fallen behind otherRead MoreThe Dropout Crisis Essay977 Words   |  4 PagesThe Dropout Crisis In a rural area just outside of Chicago, 150 students marched at the graduation ceremony. That is a far cry from the 300 students that enrolled as freshman just four years ago. This is not an inner city school, but it is a reminder that there is a crisis in our nation. The high school dropout problem is everywhere. Speakers at graduation ceremonies talk about the aspirations and big dreams of the graduating class. No one ever mentions or notices the bleak futures of their peersRead MoreThe Achievement Gap Between Hispanic Students And Non-Hispanic896 Words   |  4 PagesHispanic students and non-Hispanic students is alarming due to the high dropout rates and the increasing Hispanic population in the United States. To better understand why Hispanic students dropout out of high school it is important to explore the perspectives and experiences of high school dropouts. Examining the root causes of whys Hispanic student’s drop out of high school can assist to improve dropout r etention early on. As a significant number of Hispanics continue to dropout of high school annuallyRead MoreEffects Of Dropout On The Latino Communities Essay1375 Words   |  6 Pagesthat there is a vast majority of students who are dropping out of school. Dropout rates are a great concern to school districts and to the U.S. in general. If the population is increasing this means that our future generation needs to be well equipped to help us progress. There are several studies and research that discusses the different factors that contribute to dropout rates in the Latino communities. As we look over previous literature and studies about dropout rates in the Latino population weRead MoreHigh School Dropouts: Finishing School or Not? Essay1628 Words   |  7 Pagesdrops out of high school, there are many reasons behind their decision. Whether it is a matter of not having enough money to attend high school, or the person just does not have the desire to attend. Behind all these app rehensions, there are many people suffering since they abandoned high school. In Sanchez’s article, â€Å"A High School Dropout’s Midlife Hardships,† he reveals the hardships of a high school dropout. Kenny Buchanan, a 44-year old from Pennsylvania, withdrew from high school when he was

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Introduction Of The Exam Timetabling System Education Essay Free Essays

The literature reappraisal will concentrate on the debut of the test timetabling system that has been used in universities and timetabling that usage in other field and their job. Educational timetabling optimisation is a major administrative activity for a broad assortment of establishments. A timetabling optimisation job can be defined as delegating a figure of events into a limited figure of clip periods to optimise the consequence in the timetable to salvage cost, clip, infinite or other thing that can be save. We will write a custom essay sample on Introduction Of The Exam Timetabling System Education Essay or any similar topic only for you Order Now This study besides reviews the technique that can be used in optimising the fresh category in exam timetabling. 2.1 PROBLEM DOMAIN â€Å" A.Wren ( 1996 ) defines timetabling is the allotment, capable to restraints, of given resources to objects being placed in infinite clip, in such a manner as to fulfill every bit about as possible a set of desirable aims ( Burke A ; Petrovic,2002 ) . Many research workers has part in timetabling jobs in several old ages subsequently due to the fact that timetabling jobs are frequently over-constrained, dynamic, and optimisation standards are difficult to specify. Some of the parts from those research workers are including graph colouring, whole number scheduling from Operations Research, simulated tempering, taboo hunt, familial algorithms, and restraint logic programming from Artificial Intelligence ( Alashwal A ; Deris, 2007 ) . Timetabling is produced by the programming job and it can be shown in many different signifiers. Timetabling is really of import to Business Company, organisation, or even to single. With timetable the work will go more systematic and efficient. Timetabling is ongoing and uninterrupted procedure. A procedure of updating timetables is needed consideration of a important figure of objects and restraints. As increasing a figure of pupils, an updated to the current traditional timetabling system should be done from clip to clip to do the executable programming to pupils. Therefore, it takes a batch of clip such as several yearss or even hebdomads to finish scheduling timetables manually by homo. A timetabling job is about an assignment of a set of activities, actions or events at specific clip slot for illustration: work displacements, responsibilities, categories to a set of resources. Timetabling jobs is related to jobs on allotment resources to specific seasonableness which there are specific restraints must be considered. The resources such as groups and topics are allocated to a clip slot of schoolrooms every bit long as it was fulfilling their restraints ( Norberciak, 2006 ) . This undertaking chief end is to bring forth a best consequence of delegating pupil to a category that will optimise the used categories. The trouble is due to the great complexness of the building of timetables for test, due the scheduling size of the scrutinies and the high figure of restraints and standards of allotment, normally circumvented with the usage of small rigorous heuristics, based on solutions from old old ages. The aim of this work is the scrutiny agendas. The chief intent is to apportion each concluding test paper to the best category based on the figure of pupil taking the paper, automatically by utilizing computing machines. The people confronting these troubles is the people who in charge of delegating these exam manually. The variable is the day of the month of the test, clip of the test, topics, test documents, figure of pupil taking the exam paper and the available category. They need to group this test in test day of the month and clip of the test which is in forenoon or eventide. After that they will delegate each exam paper to an available category that fitted to the figure of pupil taking the test. These stairss will go on until all the test documents have their categories. 2.2 Technique THAT CAN BE USED IN THE PROJECT There are many intelligent techniques or method of optimisation that has been tried throughout the decennaries since the first efforts of automatizing the scrutiny timetabling procedure such as Particle Swarm Optimization ( PSO ) , Artificial Immune Algorithm, Graph Coloring Method and Genetic Algorithm. 2.2.1 PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZATION ( PSO ) Goldberg, Davis and Cheng says that PSO is different from other methodological analysiss that use natural development as the architecture while PSO is based on societal behaviour of development ( S.C.Chu, Y.T.Chen A ; J.H.Ho, 2006 ) . PSO use self-organisation and division of labour for distributed job work outing similar to the corporate behaviour of insect settlements, bird flocks and other carnal societies ( D.R.Fealco, 2005 ) . Harmonizing to Kennedy and Eberhart ( 2001 ) , PSO comparatively new stochastic GO which is known as Global Optimization member if the Broader Swarm intelligence field for work outing optimisation job ( D.R.Fealco, 2005 ) . PSO utilizing population of atom procedure to seek the system so each atom is updated by following two best values in every loop ( S.C.Chu, Y.T.Chen A ; J.H.Ho, 2006 ) . Optimization job in PSO is done by delegating way vectors and speeds to each point in a multi-dimensional hunt infinite and Each point so ‘moves ‘ or ‘flies ‘ through the hunt infinite following its speed vector, which is influenced by the waies and speeds of other points in its vicinity to localised loops of possible solution ( C.Jacob A ; N.Khemka,2004 ) . Algorithm The PSO algorithm works at the same time keeping several candidate solution in the hunt infinite. PSO algorithm consist of seven measure ( C.Jacob A ; N.Khemka,2004 ) . Which is Initialize the population – locations and speeds. Measure the fittingness of the single atom ( pBest ) . Keep path of the persons highest fittingness ( gBest ) . Modify speeds based on pBest and gBest place. Update the atoms place. Terminate if the status is meet. Travel to Step 2. The item of the PSO algorithm is shown in Figure 2.1. Figure 2.1: The procedure of PSO 2.2.2 ARTIFICIAL IMMUNE ALGORITHM Artificial Immune Algorithm besides known as AIS are stimulated from nature of human immune system. Dasgupta, Ji and Gonzalez reference that characteristic extraction, pattern acknowledgment, memory and its distributive nature provide rich metaphor for its unreal opposite number are the powerful capablenesss of the immune system ( H.Yulan, C.H Siu A ; M.K Lai ) . Timmis A ; Jonathan ( 2000 ) depict the AIS used natural immune system as the metaphor as the attack for work outing computational job ( M.R.Malim, A.T.Khadir A ; A.Mustafa ) . Anomaly sensing, pattern acknowledgment, computing machine security, mistake tolerance, dynamic environments, robotic, informations excavation optimisation and programming are the chief sphere application of AIS ( M.R.Malim, A.T.Khadir A ; A.Mustafa ) . Some preliminary biological footings in order to understand the AIS are immune cells B-cells and T-cells are two major group of immune cell and it help in acknowledging an about illimitable scope of anti cistrons form and antigens ( AG ) is the disease-causing component, it has two type s of antigens which is self and non-self where non-self antigens are disease-causing elements and self anti-genes are harmless to the organic structure ( R.Agarwal, M.K.Tiwari, S.K.Mukherjee, 2006 ) . There are two chief application sphere in AIS which is antigen and antibody. Antigen is the mark or the solution for the job, while the antibody is the reminder of the informations. Occasionally, there are more than one antigen at a certain clip and there are often big figure of antibodies present at one time. Generic stairss of unreal immune system ( AIS ) : Measure 1: Define job specific nonsubjective map and set the algorithm parametric quantity. Set iter=0 ; counter for figure of loops. Generate initial executable random solutions. ( Here solution represents operation precedence figure matching to each activity ) . Measure 2: Randomly choose an antigen and expose to all antibodies. Calculate the affinity of all antigens and make affinity vector Af. ( In our instance to calculate affinity, first optimal/near optimum agendas of activities are determined with the aid of precedence figure as give in Section 3.3 thenceforth ; its make span value is calculated ) . Measure 3: Choice Pc highest affinity antibodies. Generate the set of ringers for the selected antibodies. Measure 4: For each generated ringer do inverse mutant ( choose a part of ringer twine and invert ) with a chance and cipher the affinity of the new solution formed. If affinity ( new solution ) gt ; affinity ( ringer ) so clone=new solution ; else do partner off wise interchange mutant ( choice any two location and inter- alteration elements ) . Calculate the affinity of the new solution formed if affinity ( new solution ) gt ; affinity ( ringer ) so clone=new solution ; else, clone=clone. Measure 5: Expose the new inhabitants of the society ( i.e. , ringers ) to the antigens. Check for feasibleness and calculate affinity. Measure 6: Replace the Ps lowest affinity antibodies with the Ps best ringers generated. Iter=iter+1 ; if ( iter lt ; iter_max ) goto measure 2 else Give the best antibody as the end product. The AIS flow chart is shown in Figure 2.2. Figure 2.2: AIS flow chart 2.2.3 GRAPH COLORING METHOD It is good known that the scrutiny timetabling job, when sing merely the scrutiny conflicts restraint, maps into an tantamount graph colourising job ( Kiaer A ; Yellen, 1992 ) , which is NP-complete ( Burke, Elliman, A ; Weare, 1993 ; Willemen, 2002 ) . The graph colouring job is an assignment of colourss to vertices in such a mode that no two next vertices have the same colour. Therefore, a solution to the graph colourising job represents a solution to the nucleus scrutiny timetabling job, where graph vertices correspond to exams, graph borders indicate that the affiliated vertices have an scrutiny struggle, and colourss represent alone clip slots ( Welsh A ; Powell, 1967 ) . The graph colourising job in bend is solved utilizing one of the graph colourising heuristics ( e.g. , Largest Degree ) , normally with backtracking ( Burke, Newall, A ; Weare, 1998 ; Carter, Laporte, A ; Chinneck, 1994 ) . Graph colouring is a particular instance of graph labeling. It is an assignment of labels traditionally called â€Å" colourss † to elements of a graph topic to certain restraints. In its simplest signifier, it is a manner of colourising the vertices of a graph such that no two next vertices portion the same colour ; this is called a vertex colouring. Similarly, an border colourising assigns a colour to each border so that no two adjacent borders portion the same colour, and a face colouring of a planar graph assigns a colour to each face or part so that no two faces that portion a boundary have the same colour ( DR Hussein A ; K.E.Sabri, 2006 ) . Graph colouring is one of the most functional theoretical accounts in graph theory. It has been used to work out many jobs such as in school timetabling, computing machine registry allotment, electronic bandwidth allotment, and many other applications ( Dr Hussein A ; K.E.Sabri, 2006 ) . Dr Hussein and K.E.Sabri besides mention that Greedy Graph Coloring is one of the consecutive techniques for colourising a graph. They stated that the technique focuses on carefully select the following vertex to be colored. In their study they explain two common algorithm which is first tantrum and grade based telling techniques. First tantrum: First Fit algorithm is the easiest and fastest technique of all greedy colourising heuristics. The algorithm consecutive assigns each vertex the lowest legal colour. This algorithm has the advantage of being really simple and fast and can be implemented to run in O ( N ) . Degree based ordination: It provides a better scheme for colourising a graph. It uses a certain choice standard for taking the vertex to be colored. This scheme is better than the First Fit which merely picks a vertex from an arbitrary order. Some schemes for choosing the following vertex to be colored have been proposed such as: Largest grade telling ( LDO ) : It chooses a vertex with the highest figure of neighbours. Intuitively, LDO provides a better colouring than the First Fit. This heuristic can be implemented to run in O ( n2 ) . Saturation grade telling ( SDO ) : The impregnation grade of a vertex is defined as the figure of its next otherwise colored vertices. Intuitively, this heuristic provides a better colouring than LDO as it can be implemented to run in O ( n3 ) . Incidence grade telling ( IDO ) : A alteration of the SDO heuristic is the incidence grade telling. The incidence grade of a vertex is defined as the figure of its next coloured vertices. This heuristic can be implemented to run in O ( n2 ) . 2.2.4 GENETIC ALGORITHM The familial algorithms distinguish themselves in the field of methods of optimisation and hunt for the assimilation of the Darwinian paradigm of the development of species. The familial algorithms are procedures of convergence ( Queiros, 1995 ) . Its construction is governed by import Torahs of the theory of development of species and concreteness in two cardinal constructs: choice and reproduction. The confrontation between familial algorithms and the existent jobs is promoted by the demand for optimisation. It follows a infinite of tremendous dimensions, in which each point represents a possible solution to the job. In this labyrinth of solutions, merely a few, if non merely one, to the full satisfy the list of restraints that give form to the job. The jobs of optimisation, normally associated with the satisfaction of restraints, specify a existence of solutions, go forthing the familial algorithm to find the overall solution, or a solution acceptable as a restriction on the clip of action of the algorithm. The familial algorithms are search algorithms based on mechanisms of natural choice and genetic sciences. Normally used to work out optimisation jobs, where the infinite of hunt is great and conventional methods is inefficient ( R. Lewis and B. Paechter,2005 ) . Characteristic The nomenclature they are associated to interpret the import of indispensable constructs of genetic sciences and guesses the importance attributed to the interaction of these constructs. The construct of population, like figure of persons of the same species, is extended to unreal species. Persons are usually represented by sequences of Numberss: the genotype. The Numberss, or instead, a aggregation of Numberss, is the familial heritage of the person, finding their features, that is, its phenotype. The familial algorithms differ from traditional methods of research and optimisation, chiefly in four facets: Work with a codification of the set of parametric quantities and non with their ain parametric quantities. Work with a population and non with a individual point. Uses information from or derive cost and non derived or other subsidiary cognition. Uses regulations of passage chance and non deterministic. The solutions interact, mix up and bring forth progeny ( kids ) trusting that retaining the features â€Å" good † of their rise ( parents ) , which may be seen as a local hunt, but widespread. Not merely is the vicinity of a simple solution exploited, but besides the vicinity of a whole population. The members of the population are called persons or chromosomes. As in natural development, the chromosomes are the basal stuff ( practical, in this instance ) of heredity. It presently uses a map of rating that associates each person, a existent figure that translates to version. Then, in a mode straight relative to the value of their version, are selected braces of chromosomes that will traverse themselves. Here, can be considered the choice with elitism, or guarantee that the best solution is portion of the new coevals. His crossing is the consequence of unreal choice, sing more altered those that best run into the specific conditions of the job. The crossing of the numerical sequences promotes the outgrowth of new sequences, formed from the first. With a chance established, after traversing, a mutant can go on, where a cistron of chromosome alterations. These new persons are the 2nd coevals of persons and grade the terminal of rhythm of the familial algorithm. The figure of rhythms to execute depends on the context of the job and the degree of quality ( partial or full satisfaction of the limitations ) , which is intended for the solution. A SIMPLE GENETIC ALGORITHM DESCRIBES THE FOLLOWING CYCLE There are eight measure in familial algorithm rhythm which is: Coevals of random n chromosomes that form the initial population. Appraisal of each person of the population. Confirmation of the expiration standards. If verify expiration standard – rhythm stoping. Choice of n/2 braces of chromosomes for crossing over. Reproduction of chromosomes with recombination and mutant. New population of chromosomes called new coevals. Travel back to step 2. The rhythm described above is illustrated in Figure 2.1. Fig. 2.1. Basic construction of the familial algorithm Low-level formatting Initially many single solutions are indiscriminately generated to organize an initial population. The population size depends on the nature of the job, but typically contains several 100s or 1000s of possible solutions. Traditionally, the population is generated indiscriminately, covering the full scope of possible solutions ( the hunt infinite ) . Occasionally, the solutions may be seeded in countries where optimum solutions are likely to be found ( R. Lewis and B. Paechter,2005 ) . Choice During each consecutive coevals, a proportion of the bing population is selected to engender a new coevals. Individual solutions are selected through a fitness-based procedure, where fitter solutions ( as measured by a fittingness map ) are typically more likely to be selected. Certain selection methods rate the fittingness of each solution and preferentially choose the best solutions. Other methods rate merely a random sample of the population, as this procedure may be really time-consuming ( R. Lewis and B. Paechter,2005 ) . Most maps are stochastic and designed so that a little proportion of less fit solutions are selected. This helps maintain the diverseness of the population big, preventing premature convergence on hapless solutions. Popular and well-studied choice methods include roulette wheel choice and tournament choice ( R. Lewis and B. Paechter,2005 ) . Reproduction The following measure is to bring forth a 2nd coevals population of solutions from those selected through familial operators: crossing over ( besides called recombination ) , and/or mutant. For each new solution to be produced, a brace of â€Å" parent † solutions is selected for engendering from the pool selected antecedently. By bring forthing a â€Å" kid † solution utilizing the above methods of crossing over and mutant, a new solution is created which typically portions many of the features of its â€Å" parents † . New parents are selected for each new kid, and the procedure continues until a new population of solutions of appropriate size is generated. Although reproduction methods that are based on the usage of two parents are more â€Å" biological science divine † , some research suggests more than two â€Å" parents † are better to be used to reproduce a good quality chromosome ( R. Lewis and B. Paechter,2005 ) . These processes finally consequence in the following coevals population of chromosomes that is different from the initial coevals. By and large the mean fittingness will hold increased by this process for the population, since merely the best being from the first coevals are selected for genteelness, along with a little proportion of less fit solutions, for grounds already mentioned above. Termination This generational procedure is repeated until a expiration status has been reached ( R. Lewis and B. Paechter,2005 ) . Common terminating conditions are: A solution is found that satisfies minimal standards. Fixed figure of coevalss reached. Allocated budget ( calculation time/money ) reached. The highest superior solution ‘s fittingness is making or has reached a tableland such that consecutive loops no longer bring forth better consequences. Manual review. Combinations of the above. 2.3 Related Work 2.4 Summary Familial Algorithm is the best algorithm in timetabling job. The consequences in GAs are better optimized than the traditional method based on try-check rules on scheduling system. Some research worker had different sentiment on the advantages and disadvantages of these algorithms. Although there are new method on optimising consequence, GAs is still the chosen method in timetabling job. How to cite Introduction Of The Exam Timetabling System Education Essay, Essay examples

Saturday, May 2, 2020

Definition of Various Terminologies Free Sample for Students

Questions: 1.Define and Explain the following terminologies: Business intelligence IT AgilitySWOT analysisStrategic planningEnterprise architectureManagement information systemsMIS and DSSCloud infrastructureData and text miningDMSBig data. 2.Suggest a list of Information Technology Key Performance Indicators and outline the Advantages and Disadvantages associated with IT KPI. 3.What is SaaS and outline its Benefit and Disadvantages. Explain your answer. 4.What Business Risks had Liberty Wines Faced?. 5.How did Server vVrtualisation Benefit Liberty Wines and the Environment? Answers: Business Intelligence: It is a procedure which is dependent upon technology for the processing and analysis of information and presenting the same in such a manner which would help the organizations, managers, and other key management personnel to be able to take more sound decisions. Business intelligence includes an array of tools, applications and methods which support the entities to gather data from both the internal as well as external sources , prepare the said sources for the purpose of investigation , build up and run enquiries against the information thus finally create reports, consoles and data visualisations so that the investigative outcomes are made accessible to the decision makers (Lloyd. 2011). Thus BI helps in taking important decisions thus leaving little or no room for any disaster, improvise upon the operational efficiency and further gain competitive advantages. IT AGility: Agility is a common phenomena used to find out how fast are the entities being able to act in response to the various opportunities as well as threats. The same is done via key agility indicators. IT agility is defined as how well the Information technology installed in a company is being able to develop agility into the business processes (Oosterhout. 2007). It is basically the coalition between the business and the IT and it is believed that better alignment will lead to better agility. SWOT Analysis: It is a procedure that defines the strengths, weakness, opportunities and threats of an organization. It is an analytical tool that helps an entity to find out what is possible for an entity to do and what is not, within as well as outside the organization. The strength of a company may be management of the procedure of brand development at a faster pace whereas an organizations weakness could be in the management of the accounts receivables (Taylor 2016). However, the opportunities and threats are not under the control of the company. Strategic Planning: It is a long term planning which helps to direct the effort of a business. It highlights the various long term problems which would help the organization reach new highs and also enable it to survive in this competition. It is basically the job of the directors and the executives (Hartl 2004). Entrprise Architechture: It is a procedure that helps to link and integrate the business intelligence, link the strategies to final action and ensure that there is flexibility and ease in adaptation so that business can be conducted in line with the strategy changes (Malan 2006). Management Information System: It is a recently developed concept and is defined as an incorporated system of man and machine which helps to provide adequate data which in turn provides support to the operations and the various decision making functions of a business entity (Harsh 2005). Therefore it can be rightly be called a system which helps to provide data for decision making. MIS And DSS : MIS is a computer based management information system which basically helps to fulfil the daily information requirements of an organization whereas a DSS also being a computer based system is used by any one executive or group of executives at the decision making level of an organization so as to take decisions about certain issues. It helps to give such an output which produces valuable reports and statistical data (Asemi 2011). Cloud Infrastructure: The infrastructure that is required for supporting the cloud computing services is termed as cloud infrastructure. It only details about the infrastructural part or the physical location (Winans Brown. 2009). Data and Text Minning: Data mining is examination of observational facts situated to discover unsuspected associations and sum up the data in new ways that are both comprehendible as well as constructive to the owner of the information. Thus it helps to gain high end data quality information from the available text (Solka. 2008). DMS: It is the abbreviated version of document management system. It is a system which is used to store, manage and track the documents kept in electronic form and those document which are captured with the help of a document scanner. Big Data: As the name suggests it is a set of large amount of data whether structured or unstructured which can be further worked upon for extraction of valuable data. It basically can be summarised as 3Vs i.e. volume, variety and velocity (Rouse). 2.Some of the IT KPIs are account create success, customer connection effectiveness, Email client availability, internet proxy performance, Server growth rate etc ( 2017). The advantages associated with IT KPIs are that it helps to provide the decision makers with the correct data and at the correct time. Further to this IT KPIs follow a more structured approach thus enabling to take a more informed decision. However IT KPIs are disadvantageous to the extent that it fails to quantify measure and analyse some of the most significant metrics of achievement such as the engagement of a member of staff. 3.SaaS is the abbreviated form of Software as a Service or popularly known as on demand software which is a software release reproduction wherein the software and the allied facts are hosted centrally and contacted by means of a thin-client such as a web browser or an internet. Therefore it provides far-flung admission to software as a web based service. The benefits of SaaS are that it helps to save money on the purchase of licenses, calls for a low cost of maintenance and purchase of hardware. The cost of installing the same is very low and the ROI is attained at a faster pace. The disadvantages of SaaS are that even if the same is cheaper yet the organizations are always exposed to the risk of sticker shock wherein the initial investment may seem to be low but the additions of various services can increase the expense. The market is very crucial while choosing upon the vendor from whom the software is being purchased as the same is being offered at a lower cost wit greater benefits but with no sanctity of the vendor. Further the SaaS has an issue to integrate the system with the existing one (Deyo. 2008). Thus SaaS has its own advantages and disadvantages to offer. 4.The lack of a good IT system suiting to the expanding business was the biggest risk being faced by Liberty Wines. There computer systems were running at a very slow pace and cost of maintenance was also very high because of which the staff could not reply to the customer queries on time. This ultimately led to loss of time while processing customer orders and inventory management as well. The organizations current system is not being able to support the expanding business line of Liberty Wine. It lacks competence in management of huge data sets thus losing a number of customers. Therefore it affected the competitive advantage of the company with others in the market. But the server virtualisation had really become a boon for the company from the environmental as well as employee beneficial perspective as well. Some of the advantages that server virtualisation had on the Liberty Wine and its environment are as under: The server virtualisation led to reduction of physical servers from ten to just three and one additional server for backup purpose. This ensured savings in the cost of space as well as availability of an extra back up in case of crashing of the main server. The companys carbon footprint also reduced by more than 50 percent because of usage of lesser power and ACs as well. The apps of Liberty Wines started to work at a faster pace which enabled the staff of the company to become more responsive to the customer query. The overall overhead costs of the company also reduced and virtualisation proved to be a boon for smaller companies such as Liberty Wines (Marshall. 2011). 5.FinCen was suffering from IT issues prior to the year 2008 due to which it was not being able to provide financial data relating to money laundering and terrorism at the correct time. Due to inefficient IT system, they were unable to gather data and crucial information on a timely basis. Also unavailability of the online system and usage of the off line system for the dissemination of information amongst various agencies led to delays in taking action against the various serious financial crimes. Updation of the analytical potentials of FinCen in line with the IT infrastructure as well as the management of the data set is the need of the hour of FinCen for the successful accomplishment of its goals and mission. If the system gets updated then the bureau will be able to transmit information using faster methods including processing of the same as well. It has in the near past launched an App which has helped them to get real time accessibility of the past decades data for the benefit of the analysts, law enforcement officials and regulators. The financial intelligence is reliant upon thriving scrutiny of information to distinguish models and linkages that picture likely unlawful movements. The ability to recognize the patterns and relationships is critical for the security of the nation simply because these agencies and financial bureaus have the required amount of talent and resources to find any kind of illegal and uncensored financial acts which can endanger the safety of a nation and its citizens. Therefore their main purpose is to ensure that any kind of danger approaching a nation is identified in advance and relevant action can be taken to disrupt the act. The recent financial crime detected and disrupted by FinCen is the aggressive Mexican pills associations who as a matter of regular affair bring in illegal cash from the American narcotics sales within Mexico, deposit it in their own local banks and then transmit the money back to USA. Ann Martin an associate of FinCen analysed big data sets and seven years ago in the year 2010 stated that huge sum of illicit amount from US was entering the Mexican souk. The Government of Mexico acknowledged the fact that for the first time they have got a proper analysis against the crime (Partners for Public Services. 2011). The same could happen only because FinCen has shifted its way of processing data into the automated form which supported valuable correlation of data from many sources in detail as well as in the right time. References Asemi,A. Safari, A. Zavareh, A.A. (2011). The role of Management Information System and Decision Support System for Managers Decision Making Process. International Journal of Business and Management. 6(7). 164-173 Deyo,J. (2008). Software as a Service (SaaS). Retrieved from Hartl,D.E. (2004). Definitions of Strategic and Tactical Planning. Retrieved from file:///C:/Users/E-ZONE/Downloads/Definitions%20of%20Strategic%20and%20Tactical%20Planning.pdf Harsh,S.B. (2005). Management Information Systems. Retrieved from (2017). Example KPIs for Information Technology (IT) departments. Retrieved from Lloyd,J. (2011). Identifying Key Components of Business Intelligence Systems and Their Role in Managerial Decision Making. University of Oregon, Applied Information Management, Retrieved from Malan,R. Bredemeyer, D., Krishnan,R., Lafrenz,A. (2006). Enterprise Architecture as Business Capabilities Architecture. Retrieved from Marshall, D. (2011). Top 10 benefits of server virtualisation. Retrieved from Oosterhout,M.V., Waarts, E., Heck, E.V., Hillegersberg,J.V. (2007). Business Agility : Need, Readiness and Alignment with IT Strategies. Retrieved from Partners for Public Services. (2011). Ann Martin: Disrupting the Flow of Dirty Money. Retrieved from Rouse, M. Big data. Retrieved from Solka, J.L. (2008). Text Data Mining : Theory and methods. Statistics Surveys. 2. 94-112 Taylor,N.F. (2016). SWOT Analysis : What It Is and When to Use It. Business News daily (Online) Retrieved from Winans,T.B. Brown, J.S. (2009). Cloud Computing A collection of working papers. Retrieved from